• Full Screen
  • Wide Screen
  • Narrow Screen
  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size
Deception in Intelligence Studies

Il modello di Handel

E-mail Stampa PDF

Il Modello di Michael Handel

Nell'ambito dei suoi studi sull'intelligence e sulla sorpresa strategica, Handel si occupa - necessariamente - anche della deception, e propone l'idea che l'inganno si colleghi alla manipolazione di due categorie di concetti: le capacità e le intenzioni, sia proprie che del nemico.

In the final analysis, all types of deception operations can be said to be directed at misleading, misinforming, or confusing an opponent on only two basic categories of information. The first is to deceive him concerning one's own intentions; the second is to deceive him concerning one's own capabilities.

(Handel M., War, Strategy, and Intelligence, London, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., 1989, p. 314).

The competitive advantage to be gained is realized in basically three ways: a deceiver (1) intends to secretly grow in strength in order to achieve surprise, (2) exaggerates his capabilities, appearing stronger than he really is in order to deter an enemy, gains prestige and influence, or bluff during a crisis, or (3) seek blackmail or concessions from an adversary.

(M. Bennett, E. Waltz, Counterdeception Principles and Applications for National Security, Boston, Artech House, 2007, p. 50).

You are here: Deception Studies Intelligence Studies